GEMRIC - The Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration

Brain changes induced by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) – understanding treatment mechanisms and predictors of clinical response.

Logo GEMRIC. Graphics

The Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration was founded at a collaborative meeting in Bergen in June 2015, and is coordinated by Leif Oltedal. The principal idea behind this initiative is that collaboration and mega-analyses of combined study data will lead to new discoveries. In the first phase, GEMRIC included up to 550 subjects including patients (clinical and neuroimaging data before and after ECT) and controls (healthy or patients with depression that receive other treatments).  However, when continued as the GEMRIC study: “The GEMRIC study for determining the mechanisms of action of electroconvulsive therapy”, the collaboration was extended and we aim at increasing the sample size to 2000 subjects. Data shared with the GEMRIC study is stored securely at research infrastructure hosted by the University of Bergen.

Mohn Medical Imaging Visualization Centre


Blanken, M., Oudega, M. L., Hoogendoorn, A. W., Sonnenberg, C. S., Rhebergen, D., Klumpers, U. M. H., Van Diermen, L., Birkenhager, T., Schrijvers, D., Redlich, R., Dannlowski, U., Heindel, W., Coenjaerts, M., Nordanskog, P., Oltedal, L., Kessler, U., Frid, L. M., Takamiya, A., Kishimoto, T., Jorgensen, M. B., Jorgensen, A., Bolwig, T., Emsell, L., Sienaert, P., Bouckaert, F., Abbott, C. C., Peran, P., Arbus, C., Yrondi, A., Kiebs, M., Philipsen, A., van Waarde, J. A., Prinsen, E., van Verseveld, M., Van Wingen, G., Ten Doesschate, F., Camprodon, J. A., Kritzer, M., Barbour, T., Argyelan, M., Cardoner, N., Urretavizcaya, M., Soriano-Mas, C., Narr, K. L., Espinoza, R. T., Prudic, J., Rowny, S., van Eijndhoven, P., Tendolkar, I., & Dols, A. (2023). Sex-specifics of ECT outcome. J Affect Disord, 326, 243-248.  

Bruin, W. B., Oltedal, L., Bartsch, H., Abbott, C., Argyelan, M., Barbour, T., Camprodon, J., Chowdhury, S., Espinoza, R., Mulders, P., Narr, K., Oudega, M., Rhebergen, D., Ten Doesschate, F., Tendolkar, I., van Eijndhoven, P., van Exel, E., van Verseveld, M., Wade, B., van Waarde, J., Zhutovsky, P., Dols, A., & van Wingen, G. (2023). Development and validation of a multimodal neuroimaging biomarker for electroconvulsive therapy outcome in depression: a multicenter machine learning analysis. Psychol Med, 1-12.  ​

Ten Doesschate, F., Bruin, W., Zeidman, P., Abbott, C. C., Argyelan, M., Dols, A., Emsell, L., van Eijndhoven, P. F. P., van Exel, E., Mulders, P. C. R., Narr, K., Tendolkar, I., Rhebergen, D., Sienaert, P., Vandenbulcke, M., Verdijk, J., van Verseveld, M., Bartsch, H., Oltedal, L., van Waarde, J. A., & van Wingen, G. A. (2023). Effective resting-state connectivity in severe unipolar depression before and after electroconvulsive therapy. Brain Stimul, 16(4), 1128-1134.  


Ousdal, O. T., Brancati, G. E., Kessler, U., Erchinger, V., Dale, A. M., Abbott, C., & Oltedal, L. (2022). The Neurobiological Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Studied Through Magnetic Resonance: What Have We Learned, and Where Do We Go? Biol Psychiatry, 91(6), 540-549.  

Takamiya, A., Dols, A., Emsell, L., Abbott, C., Yrondi, A., Soriano Mas, C., Jorgensen, M. B., Nordanskog, P., Rhebergen, D., van Exel, E., Oudega, M. L., Bouckaert, F., Vandenbulcke, M., Sienaert, P., Peran, P., Cano, M., Cardoner, N., Jorgensen, A., Paulson, O. B., Hamilton, P., Kampe, R., Bruin, W., Bartsch, H., Ousdal, O. T., Kessler, U., van Wingen, G., Oltedal, L., & Kishimoto, T. (2022). Neural Substrates of Psychotic Depression: Findings From the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration. Schizophr Bull, 48(2), 514-523.  

van de Mortel, L. A., Bruin, W. B., Thomas, R. M., Abbott, C., Argyelan, M., van Eijndhoven, P., Mulders, P., Narr, K. L., Tendolkar, I., Verdijk, J., van Waarde, J. A., Bartsch, H., Oltedal, L., & van Wingen, G. A. (2022). Multimodal multi-center analysis of electroconvulsive therapy effects in depression: Brainwide gray matter increase without functional changes. Brain Stimul, 15(5), 1065-1072.  


Opel, N., Narr, K. L., Abbott, C., Argyelan, M., Espinoza, R., Emsell, L., Bouckaert, F., Sienaert, P., Vandenbulcke, M., Nordanskog, P., Repple, J., Kavakbasi, E., Jorgensen, M. B., Paulson, O. B., Hanson, L. G., Dols, A., van Exel, E., Oudega, M. L., Takamiya, A., Kishimoto, T., Ousdal, O. T., Haavik, J., Hammar, A., Oedegaard, K. J., Kessler, U., Bartsch, H., Dale, A. M., Baune, B. T., Dannlowski, U., Oltedal, L., & Redlich, R. (2021). Elevated body weight modulates subcortical volume change and associated clinical response following electroconvulsive therapy. J Psychiatry Neurosci, 46(4), E418-E426.  

Ousdal, O. T., Gjestad, R., & Oltedal, L. (2021). Reply to: Clinical Relevance of Brain Changes After Electroconvulsive Therapy: Is There Really No Link at All? Biol Psychiatry, 89(4), e15-e16.  

Wade, B. S. C., Hellemann, G., Espinoza, R. T., Woods, R. P., Joshi, S. H., Redlich, R., Dannlowski, U., Jorgensen, A., Abbott, C. C., Oltedal, L., & Narr, K. L. (2021). Accounting for symptom heterogeneity can improve neuroimaging models of antidepressant response after electroconvulsive therapy. Hum Brain Mapp, 42(16), 5322-5333.  


Mulders, P. C. R., Llera, A., Beckmann, C. F., Vandenbulcke, M., Stek, M., Sienaert, P., Redlich, R., Petrides, G., Oudega, M. L., Oltedal, L., Oedegaard, K. J., Narr, K. L., Magnusson, P. O., Kessler, U., Jorgensen, A., Espinoza, R., Enneking, V., Emsell, L., Dols, A., Dannlowski, U., Bolwig, T. G., Bartsch, H., Argyelan, M., Anand, A., Abbott, C. C., van Eijndhoven, P. F. P., & Tendolkar, I. (2020). Structural changes induced by electroconvulsive therapy are associated with clinical outcome. Brain Stimul, 13(3), 696-704.  

Ousdal, O. T., Argyelan, M., Narr, K. L., Abbott, C., Wade, B., Vandenbulcke, M., Urretavizcaya, M., Tendolkar, I., Takamiya, A., Stek, M. L., Soriano-Mas, C., Redlich, R., Paulson, O. B., Oudega, M. L., Opel, N., Nordanskog, P., Kishimoto, T., Kampe, R., Jorgensen, A., Hanson, L. G., Hamilton, J. P., Espinoza, R., Emsell, L., van Eijndhoven, P., Dols, A., Dannlowski, U., Cardoner, N., Bouckaert, F., Anand, A., Bartsch, H., Kessler, U., Oedegaard, K. J., Dale, A. M., Oltedal, L., & Gemric. (2020). Brain Changes Induced by Electroconvulsive Therapy Are Broadly Distributed. Biol Psychiatry, 87(5), 451-461.  

Wade, B. S. C., Hellemann, G., Espinoza, R. T., Woods, R. P., Joshi, S. H., Redlich, R., Jorgensen, A., Abbott, C. C., Oedegaard, K. J., McClintock, S. M., Oltedal, L., & Narr, K. L. (2020). Depressive Symptom Dimensions in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression and Their Modulation With Electroconvulsive Therapy. J ECT, 36(2), 123-129.  


Argyelan, M., Oltedal, L., Deng, Z.-D., Wade, B., Bikson, M., Joanlanne, A., Sanghani, S., Bartsch, H., Cano, M., Dale, A. M., Dannlowski, U., Dols, A., Enneking, V., Espinoza, R., Kessler, U., Narr, K. L., Oedegaard, K. J., Oudega, M. L., Redlich, R., Stek, M. L., Takamiya, A., Emsell, L., Bouckaert, F., Sienaert, P., Pujol, J., Tendolkar, I., van Eijndhoven, P., Petrides, G., Malhotra, A. K., & Abbott, C. (2019). Electric field causes volumetric changes in the human brain. eLife, 8, e49115.   


Oltedal, L., Narr, K. L., Abbott, C., Anand, A., Argyelan, M., Bartsch, H., Dannlowski, U., Dols, A., van Eijndhoven, P., Emsell, L., Erchinger, V. J., Espinoza, R., Hahn, T., Hanson, L. G., Hellemann, G., Jorgensen, M. B., Kessler, U., Oudega, M. L., Paulson, O. B., Redlich, R., Sienaert, P., Stek, M. L., Tendolkar, I., Vandenbulcke, M., Oedegaard, K. J., & Dale, A. M. (2018). Volume of the Human Hippocampus and Clinical Response Following Electroconvulsive Therapy. Biol Psychiatry, 84(8), 574-581.  


Oltedal, L., Bartsch, H., Sørhaug, O. J. E., Kessler, U., Abbott, C., Dols, A., Stek, M. L., Ersland, L., Emsell, L., van Eijndhoven, P., Argyelan, M., Tendolkar, I., Nordanskog, P., Hamilton, P., Jorgensen, M. B., Sommer, I. E., Heringa, S. M., Draganski, B., Redlich, R., Dannlowski, U., Kugel, H., Bouckaert, F., Sienaert, P., Anand, A., Espinoza, R., Narr, K. L., Holland, D., Dale, A. M., & Oedegaard, K. J. (2017). The Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC): Establishing a multi-site investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying response to electroconvulsive therapy. NeuroImage: Clinical, 14, 422-432.  ​


GEMRIC board members and sites 

Completed and ongoing analyses







Sist oppdatert 29.05.2024